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Government mediated biodiversity PES schemes cover a wide variety of programs, from biodiversity PES programs to national agriculture subsidy programs that focus on biodiversity outcomes to debt-for-nature swaps. Programs have various foci, but all prioritize or create 'biodiversity' outcomes, focusing on conservation of species-specific habitat, payments to enhance ecosystem services, reforestation, etc. Our dataset of 51 programs is representative of the information that was uncovered, but we are aware that there may be programs that we have not captured. Gaps exist, specifically in national-level agricultural payment programs targeting biodiversity, and debt-for-nature swaps.
We estimate that the market for government mediated biodiversity PES is around $2.2 billion annually. We believe this is a conservative figure, as it is only based on program funding that was found in research - the actual amount may be as much as two times this volume. Of the $2.2 billion market volume, $488 million is invested in the developing world. This is more than the volume of the compliance-based and the volume of voluntary biodiversity offsets in the developing world, indicating that this tool is robust in the developing world.